ABSTRACT:Food is very much at the centre of our activities. On both sides of the Atlantic people rediscover traditional ways of growing, consuming and celebrating food, and after years of increasing concerns about food safety much appears to be restored to what it always used to be: we experience the rise of home growers, powerful NGO activities, the ‘buy local’ movement and a mushrooming of healthy and traditional food providers and taverns. However, in the current debate about growth and economic uncertainty, it is worthwhile to revisit recent trade wars around ‘food’ and the political climate they have poisoned over the last two decades. A lingering decrease of food related cultural values and nation’s sovereign powers in the course of progressive trade liberalisation in food and agricultural products has correlated with the increase of reciprocal political resentment in the face of global economic crisis. The article therefore seeks to identify to what extent intransparency and stringency of legal- economic agency in the realm of food have contributed to general political unease and powerlessness and where the law might provide escape routes from crisis.
* Helene Albrecht holds a LLB law degree from Westminster University, School of Law and a LLM specialist degree in 'Environmental Law and Policy' from University College London. Her focus is on energy law and agriculture, international relations and capacity building of local communities. A former career in music inspires to creative and constructive perspectives and applications of the law to sustainability and societal engagement.
1 Marsha A Echols, 'Food Regulation in the European Union and the United States: Different Cultures, Different Laws' (1998) 4 Colum. J. Eur. L 525, 525.
2 Peter Foster, 'Tainted Chinese baby milk powder causes baby girls to grow breasts', The Telegraph (London, 10 August 2010) (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/7936456/Tainted-Chinese-baby-milk-powder-causes-baby-girls-to-grow-breasts)accessed 10 July 2012.
3 Derek Hargreaves, 'Much ado about cucumbers', The Guardian (London, 1 June 2011) (http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jun/01/cucumbers-e-coli-germany)accessed 10 July 2012.
4 (n 127).
5 Andrew Lang, 'World Trade law after Neoliberalism' (OUP 2011) 61-103.
6 ibid, 22-24.
7 US - Certain Measures Affecting Imports of Poultry from China, WT/DS 392/R.
8 ibid, 22-24.
10 ibid, para 2.26- 2.32.
11 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1947); see World Trade Organisation, 'The Legal Texts-The Results of Multilateral Trade Negotiations' (18th reprint OUP 2011) 423.
12 Summary of the Final Report( http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds392_e.htm) accessed on 25 June 2012.
13 'The US measure satisfied the two conditions in Article 1 of the SPS Agreement [...]. First, Section 727 was enacted for the purpose of protecting human and animal life and health from the risk posed by the prospect of the importation of contaminated poultry products from China and was therefore a measure applied for the purpose set forth in Annex A(1)(b) of the SPS Agreement. Second, the panel concluded that Section 727 directly or indirectly affected international trade in poultry products.' (n 6) 104-113.
14 The panel referred to Art 2.2, 5.1, 5.2, and 5.6 of the SPS Agreement respectively (n 5) 113-155.
15 Office of the United State Trade Representative, United States files WTO Case Against China to Protect American Jobs' (Press Release September 2011) (http://www.ustr.gov/about-us/press-office/press-releases/2011/september/united-states-files-wto-case-against-china-prote)accessed 10 July 2012.
16 Agreement on Implementation of Art VI of the GATT 1994 (Anti-dumping); SCM Agreement respectively (n 10) 147 and 231.
17 In other words 'normal value'; for a summary of the Anti-dumping Agreement see http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/ursum_e.htm#fAgreement accessed on 24 June 2012.
18 Office of the United States Trade Representative (n 14).
19 'China rejects U.S. complaint again chicken tariffs 'Los Angeles Times (LA, 21 September 2011) (http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/money_co/2011/09/china-rejects-us-complaint-against-chicken-tariffs.html) accessed on 24 June 2012; see also Michael Rundle, 'Britain to export 1000 of pigs to China' The Huffington Post' (United States,17 May 2012)
20 Russia's membership to the WTO was approved by the Ministerial Conference on the 16 December 2012; on 7 June 2012 the ratification protocol was submitted to the Russian federation and will be completed on a fast track by 23 July 2012; (http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news11_e/acc_rus_16dec11_e.htm) (http://www.mondaq.com/x/181432/International+Trade/The+Russian+Government+Finally+
Submits+WTO+Accession+Protocol+To+Russian+Parliament) accessed on 30 June 2012.
21 Rory Harrington, 'WTO to investigate EU ban on US poultry' (Food Production Daily, (http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Quality-Safety/WTO-to-investigate-EU-ban-on-US-poultry) accessed on 24 June 2012.
22 Shruti Date Singh, 'China and Russia are snubbing American Chicken', (Bloomberg Businessweek Magazine, 28 July 2011 (http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/china-and-russia-are-snubbing-american-chicken-07282011.html) accessed on 24 June 2012.
23 European Poultry Club (http://www.poultryclub.com/2736.html); for a summary of business strategies and features see also a documentation presented to Ukrainian clients (http://www.poultryclub.com/uploads/media/kiev_wesjohann.pdf) accessed on 24 June 2012.
24 For the correlation between the oil price and agricultural products see Salvatore Carollo, 'Understanding Oil Prices-A Guide to What drives the Price of Oil in Today's Markets' (2012) Chichester: John Wiley & Sons (LTD)
25 WTO, 'The Legal Texts' (n 10).
26 Agreement on Agriculture, preamble (n 10) p 33.
27 Statistics available at ( http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/agric_e/agric_e.htm) accessed on 9 July 2012.
28 USA Poultry and Egg Council ( http://www.usapeec.org/about_default.cfm) accessed on 30 June 2012.
29 NOW, 'Facts and Figures: The Cotton Trade', ( http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/310/cotton-trade.html) accessed 9 July 2012.
30 Patricia Lucia Cantuária Marin, 'Providing Protection for Plant Genetic Resources-Patents, Sui Generis Systems, and Biopartnerships' (Kluwer International 2002).
32 Glenys Kinnock, 'America's $24 bn subsidies damages developing world cotton farmers', The Guardian (London, 24 May 2011) ( http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/may/24/american-cotton-subsidies-illegal-obama-must-act) accessed on 10 July 2012.
33 For the use of growth hormones see T-13/99 R Pfizer Animal Health SA/NV v Council of the European Union and T-70/99 R Alpharma v Council of the European Union; for some recent developments as regards animal treatment see US Food and Drug Administration, 'Pfizer will voluntarily suspend sale of animal drug 3-Nitro' (http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm258342.htm) accessed on 9 July 2012.
34 (n 21).
35 Michael Baxter 'It's time for investors to get into pigs' (http://blog.share.com/2012/05/17/is-it-time-for-investors-to-get-into-pigs/10964) accessed on 28 June 2012.
36 For general textbooks on the WTO see Michael J Trebilcock and Rob Howse, 'The Regulation of International Trade', (3rd edn, Routledge 2003; forthcoming 4rd Edition due on 5 October 2012); Dani Rodrik, 'The Globalisation Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy' (NY: W.W. Norton 2011); Andrew Lang (n 4).
37 For an account of the trade negotiations see (http://search.wto.org/search?q=Doha+Round&site=English_website&client=english_frontend&proxystylesheet=english_frontend
&output=xml_no_dtd&numgm=5&proxyreload=1&ie=ISO-8859-1&oe=ISO-8859-1) accessed on 26 August 2012.
38 Preamble (n 10) 33.
39 Art 20, 'Continuation of the Reform Process'.
40 The problem became obvious in EC-Export Subsidies on Sugar WT/DS265/AB/R where sugar imported from APC countries was subsidised as export sugar after blending with domestic production; for an illustration of trade relations with developing countries see L Bartels, 'The trade and development policy of the European Union'(2007) 18 EJIL 4, 715-756.
41 Gillian Moon, 'Fair in Form, But Discriminatory in Operation-WTO Law's Discriminatory Effects on Human Rights in Developing Countries' (2011) 14 JIEL (3) 553-592.
42 Art 14 and 15 respectively.
43 Kimberly A Elliott, 'Agriculture and the Doha Round' (2007 Institut for International Economics) (http://www.cgdev.org/files/12219_file_Doha_brief_final.pdf) ; Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada ( http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/agr-acc/wto-omc/nego.aspx?lang=eng&view=d )accessed 9 July 2012.
44 Michel Mc Mahon, 'The Agreement on Agriculture' in 'The World Trade Organisation: Legal, Economic and Political Analysis' (2005 Springer);
45 Fiona Scott, 'Agriculture and the WTO-Towards a new Theory of International Agricultural Trade Regulation' (Elgar International Economic Law Series 2009)
46 Green America < http://www.greenamerica.org/ > ; Health and Environment Alliance (http://www.env-health.org/news/latest-news/article/get-involved-in-building-a ); GogreenEurope (http://www.gogreeneurope.com /) accessed on 10 July 2012; see also Sarah Murray, 'Small farmer have a critical role', Financial Time (London, 13 October 2011).
47 Gabrielle Marceau and Joel Trachtman, 'TBT, SPS, and GATT: A Map of the WTO Law of Domestic Regulation', (2002) 36 Journal of World Trade 811.
48 Art 2.2 of the TBT Agreement.
49 M Joshi, 'Are Eco-Labels consistent with World Trade Organisation Agreements?' (2004) 38 Journal of World Trade 1, 62-92.
50 Alison Burrell, ''Good agricultural practices' in the agri-food supply chain?' (2011) 13 Env. L. Rev. 4, 251-270.
51 United States-Measures concerning the Importation, Marketing and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products WT/DS 381/R; the Appellate Body found that 'the measure at issue is not even-handed in the manner in which it addresses the risks to dolphins arising from different fishing techniques in different areas of the ocean' ; it furthermore discriminated against Mexico under Art 2.1 TBT although the trade restrictions were not more restrictive than necessary for the pursuance of a legitimate objective under Art 2.2
52 Laura Nielsen, 'The WTO, Animals and PPMs' (Martin Nijhoff Publishers 2007).
53 Marsha A. Echols, 'Food safety: Food Safety and the WTO: The Interplay of Culture, Science and Technology', (Kluwer Law International 2001): 'The SPS Agreement is a legal turning point. Its science-based rules displace centuries of food traditions and national attitudes towards food and food safety.' 3.
54 EC Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones) WT/DS 26/R and European Communities-Measures Affecting the Approval and marketing of Biotech Products WT/DS 291/R; WT/DS292/R; WT/DS/293/R; for an analysis of the latter see Margret A. Young, 'The WTO's use of relevant rules of international law: An analysis of the Biotech case', 56 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 4, available on www.law.cam.ac.uk/faculty-resources/10004248.pdf accessed on 9 July 2012
55 The Codex Alimentarius Commission; The World Organisation on for Animal Health; The International Plant Protection Convention; see Lukasz Gruszczynski, 'Regulating Health and Environmental Risks under WTO Law' (OUP 2011) 75-104.
56 Michael A Livermore, 'Authority and Legitimacy in Global Governance: Deliberation, Institutional Differentiation, and the Codex Alimentarius', 81 NY Univ. L. Rev. 766-801.
57 Echols (n 50).
58 United States-Safeguard Measures on Imports of Fresh, Chilled or Frozen Lamb Meat from New Zealand and Australia WT/DS178/AB/R; United States-Definitive Safeguard Measures on Imports of Wheat Gluten from the European Communities' WT/DS166/AB/R; both discussed in Alan O. Sykes, 'The Persistent Puzzles of Safeguards: Lessons from the Steel Dispute', (2003) 7 JIEL 3, 523-564.
59 Sykes (n 53) 524-37.
60 See Joanne Scott and Andrew Lang, 'The Hidden World of WTO Governance' (2009) 20 EJIL 3 (2009) 575-614; Richard H. Steinberg, 'The Hidden World of WTO Governance: A Reply to Andrew Lang and Joanne Scott' (2009) 20 EJIL 4, 1063-71.
61 Regulation 178/2002 laying down the General Principles and requirements on food law, establishing the European Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters on food safety
62 Thomas Horsley, 'Subsidiarity and the European Court of Justice: Missing Pieces in the Subsidiarity Jigsaw?' (2011) JCMS 1-16.
63 Paul Craig, 'Delegated acts, Implementing Acts and the new Comitology Procedure'(2011) 36 European Law Review p 671
64 Daniel C. Esty, 'Bridging the Trade and Environment Divide' (2001) 15 Journal of Economic perspectives 3 113-130; see also Joanne Scott, 'International Trade and Environmental Governance: Relating Rules (and Standards) in the EU and the WTO' (2004) 15 EJIL 2 307-354.
65 Echols (n 50).
66 However, 'from the 1960s through the mid 1980s, the regulation of health, safety and environmental risks was generally stricter in the United States than in Europe'; Diahanna Lynch and David Vogel, 'The Regulation of GMOs in Europe and the United States: A Case-Study of Contemporary European Regulatory Politics', (Council on Foreign Relation, Press Release 5 April 2001) (http://www.cfr.org/genetically-modified-organisms/regulation-gmos) accessed 9 June 2012.
67 US Foreign Agricultural Service for a chronology of the EC ban and further information to agricultural exports, ( http://www.fas.usda.gov/) accessed on 30 June 2012.
68 Richard Lacey, 'Mad Cow Disease: The History of BSE in Britain' (Cypsela Pub.Ltd; Jersey, Channel Islands 1994).
69 Council Directive 81/602/EEC of 31 July 1981 Concerning the Prohibition of Certain Substances having a Hormonal Action and of any Substances having a Thyrostatic Action; see also Echols (n 48) 46.
70 Echols, 45-52.
71 The Standard Code had been concluded under the Tokyo Round in 1973;
72 The conference was sponsored by the EC and involved 90 scientists from several countries, supra 48, p 49.
73 Translated into the 'appropriate level of protection-ALOP' Art 5.6.
74 According to the SPS Agreement a member's sanitary and phytosanitary measure must be 'based on scientific principles and is not maintained without sufficient evidence [...]' whereby this scientific evidence refers to the 'assessment of risk and the determination of the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection' as defined in detail in Art 5; for a study of risk regulation under different legal regimes see M Lee, 'Beyond safety? The broadening scope of risk regulation', (2011) Current legal Problems, Research Paper of the University College of London,
75 Lang (n 4) 224-228.
76 Lynch and Vogel (n 56) 9-14.
77 A Bryan Endres, '"GMO": Genetically Modified Organism or Gigantic Monetary Obligation? The Liability Schemes for GMO Damage in the United States and the European Union' (2000) 22 LOY. L.A. Int'L&Comp.L.Rev.453.
78 Lynch and Vogel (no 56), 13-4.
79 Entering into force in 1993 and 2000 respectively; see (http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cartagena-protocol-en.pdf) accessed on 10 July 2012.
80 Young, (n 49), 2-4.
81 Ibid, 9-32.
82 As defined in the 'Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)', Art 31(1) and (3) (c).
83 VCLT Art 31 (3)(c) provides for the taking into account of 'relevant rules of international law applicable in the relations between parties' which the panel construed as 'the parties to the treaty' instead of 'the disputing parties; as membership was not identical to both the WTO and international law, the later, in this case the CBD and the Biosafety protocol were not applicable; in contrast Art 31 (1) allowed for the 'drawing on non-WTO sources if they were informative of the 'ordinary meaning ' of WTO treaty terms; (n 49) 31.
84 Ibid, 32-3.
85 Margret A Young, 'Trading Fish, Saving Fish-The Interaction between Regimes in International Law', Cambridge University Press 2011; see also C Roberts, 'The Ocean of Life-The fate of Man and the Sea' NY: Penguin 2012 for an actual account of the state of the oceans and their fish resources; Kati Kulovesi, 'Fragmented Landscapes: WTO Dispute Settlement System, Legitimacy and Fragmentation' in 'The WTO Dispute Settlement System-Challenges of the Environment, Legitimacy and Fragmentation' (Wolters Kluwer 2012) 153-175.
86 C-419/03 and C-121/07 Commission v France; C-492/03 Commission v Austria; C-165/08 Commission v Poland; C-256/04; C-82/05 Commission v Greece
. 87 (http://www.gmo-free-regions.org/) accessed 10 July 2012.
88 Martin Sieker (Rapporteur) 'Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on 'GMOs in the EU'' European Union Preparatory Acts (additional opinion), OJ C 68; Ludivine Petetin, 'The EU Proposal on GM Crop Cultivation: a Real Opportunity for Consumer Preferences?' Research Paper of UACES, the academic association for contemporary European studies' (http://events.uaces.org/events/conferences/passau/abstract.php?paper_id=477) accessed 10 July 2012.
89 United States-Continued suspension of obligations in the EC-Hormones Dispute WT/DS320?AB/R
90 Michael M. Du, 'Standard of review under the SP Agreement after EC-Hormones II' (2010) 59 International Law Quarterly 441-459
91 Australia-Measures Affecting the Importation of Apples from new Zealand WT/DS367/AB/R
92 Jacqueline Peel, 'Of apples and oranges (and Hormones in beef): science and the standard of review in WTO disputes under the SPS Agreement' (2012) 61 I.C.L.Q. 2 439.
93 Ibid 458.
94 See for instance Vince Heaney, 'US drought renews food speculation concerns' Financial Times 19 August 2012; Louise Lucas, 'Farmers battle to bring home the battle' Financial Times 22 August 2012
95 For a history of the 'dinner' see Sherrie McMillan, 'What time is Dinner?'
96 (http://www.americandinermuseum.org/site/) accessed 10 July 2012.
97 Echols (n 50)
98 Madeleine M. Leininger, 'Some cross-cultural universal and non-universal functions, beliefs and practices of food', (1994) Dimensions of Nuitrion, Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 154-164.
99 Quoted in Echols, (n 50) 28.
100 'Democracy as a Universal Value',(1999) 10.3 Journal of Democracy 10-17; http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/Democracy_as_a_Universal_Value.pdf accessed 10 July 2012
101 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity adopted in 2001.
102 Ibid, quoted in 'Cultural and development: A response to the challenges of the future?' Symposium organised within the framework of the 35th session of the General Conference of UNESCO Paris 10 October 2009, (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001876/187629e.pdf) accessed on 29 June 2012, 6.
103 Japan-Agricultural Products II, WT/DS76/AB/R; see also Roland Buerk,' Japan's obsession with perfect fruit' BBC News (London, 15 March 2012) (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-radio-and-tv-17352173) accessed 11 July 2012.
104 (n 79)
105 Paper is with the author; http://news.uchicago.edu/multimedia/brussels-effect-rise-regulatory-superstate-europe, accessed on 2 July 2012. The author further elaborates on the 'seemingly declining power status and inability to get its way alone' which makes Europe a 'power of the past', 1.
107 This is also described as the 'Delaware effect' under which states achieve a favourable competitive position through deregulation (n 89) 2.
108 In the US this has occurred as the 'California Effect', ibid.
109 ibid, 5.
110 ibid, 6.
111 ibid, 27.
112 For the likeness of American and European citizens in their fight against chemical pollution see Joanne Scott, 'From Brussels with Love: The Transatlantic Travels of European Law and the Chemistry of Regulatory Attraction, (2009) 57 AM. J. COMP. L. 897.
113 Robert Falkner, 'The European Union as a 'Green Normative Power'? EU Leadership in international biotechnology Regulation' (2006) Center for European Studies Working Paper Series 140
114 ibid, 15.
115 ibid, 13.
116 ibid, 14.
117 R Daniel Keleman and David Vogel, 'Trading places: The US and EU in International Environmental Policies', (2010) 43 Comparative Political Studies, 427-456.
118 David A Wirth, 'The EU's New Impact on U.S. Environmental Regulation', Boston College Law (2007) School Research Paper 144, ( http://ssm.com/abstract=1028733 ); the author refers to the Regulation on the Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) EC 1907/2006.
119 Ibid, 106.
120 'These activities are documented in communications from various departments and agencies, including the Department of State and Commerce, the U.S. Trade Representative, and the EPA [...as] collected in reports of the U.S House of Representatives and the Freie Universität Berlin, documenting that the executive branch in effect adopted as U.S. government policy the position of the American chemical industry on REACH.'105.
121 Dieter Pesendorfer, 'EU environmental policy under pressure: Chemicals policy change between antagonistic goals?' (2006) 15 Environmental Politics 1; see also (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/reach/reach_intro.htm) accessed 10 July 2012.
122 David M. Trubek, Yves Dezalay, Ruth Buchanan, John R. Davis, 'Global Restructuring and the Law: Studies of the Internationalisation of Legal Fields and the Creation of Transnational Arenas', (1993-5) 44 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 407-498.
123 Ibid, 408.
125 Named after the international financial institutions based in the American capital; (n 109) 409.
126 Ibid, 410.
127 Ibid, 410; These aims are also listed in the preamble of the WTO Agreement (n 10)
128 Ibid, 420.
130 Ibid, 497.
131 The title goes back to the roman novel by Gaius Petronius who reconstructed the life of lower classes during the early Roman Empire. Later it became title of a movie by Federico Fellini whose aim was 'to eliminate the borderline between dream and imagination: to invent everything and then to objectify the fantasy; to get some distance from it in order to explore it as something all of a piece and unknowable'; Federico Fellini, <.i>'Comments on Film', (Ed. G. Grazzini (trans. Joseph Henry). California State University at Fresno 1988).
132 Carlo Petrini, 'Indigenous Cultures and Food Sovereignty', Guest Speaker at the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues May 2012, ( http://www.slowfood.com/international/food-for-thought/slow-talk/132993/indigenous-cultures-and-food-sovereignty-/ ) accessed 10 July 2012.
133 Endres, (n 70); Lynch and Lynch-Vogel (n 56)
134 Pesticide Action Network North America(http://www.panna.org/issues/food-agriculture/pesticides-on-food); Pesticide Action Network Europe < http://www.pan-europe.info/>; Pesticide Action Network Asia and the Pacific < http://www.pan-international.org/panint/?q=asia> accessed 10 July 2012.
135 Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, < http://www.un.org/en/> accessed 10 July 2012.
136 K Raworth, 'A Safe and Just Space for humanity' (Oxfam Discussion Paper, February 2012) (https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/dp-a-safe-and-just-space-for-humanity-130212-en.pdf ) accessed 10 July 2012; the areas of concern are chemical pollution, atmospheric aerosol loading and nitrogen and phosphorus cycles.
137 Ibid, 20. These insights are poverty eradication, excessive consumption, aspirations of raising middle classes and inequalities of resource use.
138 Lang (n 4)
139 Ibid, 11.
140 Lang refers inter alia to Australia-Measures Affecting Importation of Salmon WT/DS/18/R; Japan-Measures Affecting Agricultural Products (Japan-Agricultural Products II) WT/DS76/AB/R; Canada/United States-Continued Suspension, WT/DS/320/R and WT/DS/321/AB/R; see also Alessandra Arcuri, 'Food safety at the WTO after 'Continued Suspension': A Paradigm Shift?' Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics (RILE) Working Paper Series No. 2010/04,
141 Lang, (n 121) 347-8.
142 See Olivier de Schutter, 'Agro-Ecology and the Right to Food' , Report presented at the 16th Session of the UN HRC [A/HRC/16/49]
( http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/mar/08/eco-farming-double-food-output ) accessed on 26 August 2012.
143 Paul Craig, Grainne de Burca, 'EU Law-Text, Cases, and Materials' (5th edn, OUP 2011) 31-71.
144 (http://www.cost.eu.fa ) accessed on 6 July 2012.
145 Ibid; the organisation cooperates for instance with the UK Research Centre 'Elms Farm', information available on (http://www.organicresearchcentre.com/) accessed on 6 July 2012.
146 For the growing movement of urban farming and home growing see this year's summer school of the 'Club of Rome', 'Eating Tomorrow: Re-thinking the World Food System', (http://www.clubofrome.org/?cat=93) accessed on 6 July 2012.
147 Jurek Martin, 'Political hot potatoes', Financial Times (London 21 April 2012); the author reports about Michelle Obama's 'healthy food campaign' including an organic vegetable patch in the White House garden in the footsteps of Eleanor Roosevelt; http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/cc9c0f3e-88e7-11e1-9b8d-00144feab49a.html#axzz1zpdKxZDk accessed on 6 July 2012.
148 Stephen Darwall, 'Sympathetic Liberalism: Recent Work on Adam Smith', (1997) 28 Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 139-164; Kulovesi (n 78); Trebilcock and Howse (n 34).